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roo                   HISTORY OF PERSIA                   rUAP.
invaders out of Khorasan, But they were faithless allies,
and the very next year, after the departure of Masud,
Chakir Beg attacked and defeated the Glwnayid general
near Merv. In the following year Chakir captured
Merv, and in A,H. 429 (1037) Toghril seiml Nishapur.
Khorasan thus passed into his hands, and Lane-Poole
appropriately dates the foundation of the Seljuk dynasty
from this important event. Masud> who had been unable
to concentrate his attention upon the invaders because of
disturbances in India, returned to fight for Khorasan, and
in A.H. 431 (1040) suffered u crushing defeat, i le retired
to recruit fresh troops in India, where his army mutinied,
with the result that he was deposed and afterwards
murdered. Three years later Mcxltul, son of Masud,
was defeated^ and after this campaign the Seljuk power
was established in Khorasan, and the Glmnuvid dynasty
turned its entire attention to its Indian possessions.
The Career of Toghril Beg^ A.H. 429-455 (1037 1063)*
I have already mentioned Mahmud's craving for
recognition by the Caliph and for a grant of titles* Upon
the defeat of the son of Masud similar recognition was
sought by the Seljuk victors, in a letter wherein they
assured the Caliph of their loyalty. Needless to say*
their request was granted, Kaim causing ToghriPs name
to be read in the mosques and placed on the coins before
that of the chief of the waning Buwayhid dynasty.
The conquering Seljuks had now spread all over
Persia, which was divided up among various branches of
the ruling family, and in A.H. 447 (1005) Toghril Beg
crowned his victories by making a state visit to Baghdad
An account of the ceremony observed on this historical
occasion has been handed down, and is of particular
interest's showing the prestige which still attached to
the Caliphate, The Seljuk conqueror, escorted by his
nobles, approached the sacred presence on foot and un-
armed. He was received by the Successor of the
Prophet, who, seated on a golden throne concealed by
hangings, wore the famous black mantle of the Abbasids
and grasped the staff of Mohamed in his right hand*
Toghril in awe and reverence fell on his face and kissed